Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture Department
Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture
Landscape analysis methodology of national parks territories
This method determines the degree of land-scapes suitability for recreational use and environmental measures, which in turn is one of the main factors influencing the location of the nature reserves and their structure. Based on this assessment the present state of landscapes (degree of digression, a variety of vegetation, hydrogeological conditions, geological structure, etc.) and current function (recreational, residential, economic, etc.) are determined. As a result, a landscape analysis should lead to the development of recommendations for delineating the different functional areas in national parks, which are differentiated by the degree of protected areas.
: : national park, landscape analysis.
The analysis of territories, that determines the value of landscapes is one of main factors having influence on the location of the natural protected fund objects, deter-mines their structure and functional zoning, including national parks.
The problems of territories landscape analysis are studied by the specialists from different spheres of knowledge: by geographers, environmentalists, biologists and other specialists aiming at the development of corresponding science directions, and in the field of urban planning – by architects with the purpose of reasoning and recommendations for project practice.
A landscape is a natural or anthropogenic (changed by human activities) territorial or equatorial complex, genetically-uniform area (segment) of landscape area with a single geological foundation, identical relief, hydro-climatic mode, combination of soils and biocenosis and morphological structure characteristic for it .
A special place is taken by the recreation-al resources scientific research methods: climatic, landscape, curative, etc. by means of which the “integral” estimation of recrea-tional resources aiming at using them for rest, treatment and tourism is given.
PURPOSE OF WORK
The purpose of this article is the detecting indexes of territory favourableness degree for the recreational using.
ANALYSIS METHODS OF RESEARCHING
One of the first researchers, analyzing characteristics of natural complex and estimating recreational resources, is the work by О.І. Melick-Pashaev “Designing methodology of state national parks in the RSFSR (recommendations)”, was published in 1987, in which conception bases of national parks space-planning organization, their classification, goals, tasks and structure; the analysis methodology of natural complex and recreational resources and the assessment methodology of the natural complex state as a result of anthropogenic influence, etc. are described .
The methods of landscape territory analysis and recreational resources, in particular, were investigated in the works of such Ukrainian scientists-architects as І. Rodich-kin, T.Panchenko, V.Gorodskiy, L. Rudenko [4, 10, 11, 13 15].
Based on the researchers of the above mentioned scientists-architects and it can be generalized, that methodology of landscape analysis of national park territory as a recreational object includes the following methods:
а) assessment of the natural environment, resources and landscapes (climate, relief, soils, vegetation coverage, superficial and underground waters, hydrogeological conditions, geological structures and engineering geological factors);
b) assessment of exogenous processes (avalanches, landslides, collapses, subsidence, erosion, abrasion, karst, water logging, etc.) and endogenous processes (seismic);
c) assessment of anthropogenic factors and urban conditions (settlement, industry, engineering infrastructure, etc.);
d) assessment of recreational resources (health resort, cultural cognitional, historical architectural, etc.).
All these and other assessment methods are used in the general practice of urban design, regardless of the spatial object (region, district, city).
Climatic conditions assessment method, except descriptions of basic climate components (temperature, humidity, precipitations, wind, radiation mode, etc) must be used for the assessment of climate influence on recreational complexes functioning, and also on the determination the degree of climate favourableness for forming recreational zones of the managed and stationary recreation. This method has been studied thoroughly in geographical and ecological researchers and is widely used in design practice [1, 6, 9, 12, 16]. For taking into account the recreational factors, the estimation of degree of territories favourableness by the climatic conditions and estimation of weather complex for recreational employments should be given in accordance with the indexes of table 1.
A method of the relief area estimation, which highlights the natural characteristics: relief types (unchanging plains, intermoun-tain foundation pits, strongly and weakly dissected lowland, strongly, moderately and weakly dissected middle mountains, strongly dissected highlands, elevated plains, plateaus and tableland, etc.); landforms (valley rivers, canyons, watershed areas of mountain ranges, aligned plateau-like surface in the mountains, etc.); landscape elements (tilted terraces, folds, hillside, flat terraces, head-lands, amphitheaters, convex, concave and similar to the steps hills, thalwegs, etc.); alti-tude; relative height i.e. the depth of the vertical partition in meters; horizontal partition in kilometers; height difference in meters; cutting (net of ravines, coombs, logs); surface slope in%. Criteria of relief estimation by the degree of its favorability are given in table 2, all indicators are especially important for mountain areas, where within national parks are formed the ski centers, such as the Carpathian National Park (Ukraine), Krkonoše National Park (Czech Republic), Stelvio National Park (Italy) and others are formed .
The relief estimation method includes also the analysis of its transformation as a result of the economic mastering of territory, influence of natural relief violations on the state of natural complex components, information about relief elements, which are natural monuments. This method has a direct attitude to the choice of places for recreational building and is considered more in detail by the author [2, 8].
The estimation methods of the soil cover and vegetation estimation take into account destructure of humus layer, salinity, soil resi-lience to anthropogenic influence, general characteristics of vegetation cover (geo-graphic location of types and kinds of vege-tation; their description; phenological phases of development, resistance to anthropogenic loading, including recreation, availability and dislocation of rare species, etc.), characteristic of grass (grass species composition, dislo-cation of sites with the most valuable gene pool, height, density and coverage area), cha-racteristic of forest fund (age, plenitude, wooded, pedigree composition, class of fire hazard, groups of the forests and protection category, etc.) [7, 20].
One should consider the suitability of soils for landscaping: especially favorable in the absence of the need to replace them by fertile soil, favorable – if it is necessary to replace its to 50% of the fertile soil and scarcely favorable if it’s necessary to replace more than 50%.
One should conduct estimation of territory favorableness for placing recreational establishments and complexes, economic objects, transport and engineering communications depending on character and degree of display of exogenous and endogenous processes in accordance with table 3.
The estimation method of recreational resources must include objective quality and quantitative characteristic of all combined natural and historical and cultural resources of national parks territory that determine specialization of recreational activity, and also analysis of availability of these resources, pedestrian and transport permeability of territory in the conditions of adaptation of mass contingents of tourists and providing with safety in off type natural situations [17 – 19].
On the basis of study and estimation of recreational resources and their space-hygienic interconnection a complex map of landscapes is made, where the modern using and state of landscapes (forests, forest-parks, parks, roads, residential territories, etc.) are represented showing the main species points, protected territories, territories of the ma-naged recreation, existing beaches and areas that are comfortable for creation artificial beaches, abrasive banks that must be streng-thened, zones of periodic underflooding, ex-otic form of relief, etc .
1. A block diagram of practicing deep deposits of ferromanganese nodules sedentary set of fixed at the bottom of the base module and quickly by a movable collector. The latter has a coordinating communication via hose cable with a drive carriage and performs a circular motion around the base module on a spiral trajectory.
2. Productive area of minerals in circular overlapping blocks, where excavation occurs spiral steps. Moving to the next set of traffic control unit and a collector carried by the installed program automatically includes data from sonar beacons.
1. Bodnar J., Sadovenko J. Tymchynskyy V. etc., 1978. Methodical recommendations for the architectural design of natural parks of the Ukrainian SSR. Kyiv: Scientific Research Institute of Urbanism design, 86 (in Russian).
2. Chizhovа V., 2006. Methods of zoning of national parks. South Russian journal geology, geography and global energy. №3.105-123 (in Russian).
3. Geographic Encyclopedia of Ukraine. In 3 vols., 1990. Ed. Marynych O. Kyiv : Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia them. M.P. Bazhan, Vol.2. (in Ukrainian).
4. Golub A., 2014. Research analysis of problems formation National parks. Scientific and technical journal articles Suchasni problemy architectury ta mistobuduvannya, Vol. 36, Kyiv: KNUCA. (in Ukrainian).
5. Gorokhov V., Luntz L., 1985. World’s parks. Moscow: Stroiizdat. 328 (in Rus-sian).
6. Melik-Pashayev O., 1987. Methods of designing state national parks (recommendations). Moscow: Giprogor, 157 (in Russian).
7. Mysáowski J., 2011. Negative impact of motorization on the natural environment. Motrol: kom. Mot. Energ. Roln., OL PAN, Vol. XIc, 223-229.
8. Niedziółka I., Tanaś W., Szymanek M. etc., 2014. Evaluation of Physical Properties in Briquettes Made from Selected Plant Materials. Motrol: kom. Mot. Energ. Roln., OL PAN, Vol. 14, No 4, 99-105.
9. Methodical recommendations for the implementation of recreational activities within the territories and objects of natural reserve fund. 2009. Ed. Parchuk G. Kyiv. 22 (in Ukrainian).
10. Panchenko T., 2009. The tourist environment: architecture, nature, infrastructure [monograph]. Kyiv : Logos, 176 (in Ukrainian).
11. Panchenko T., 2015. Recreational Landscape planning of protected areas (monograph). Kyiv: KNUCA. 176 (in Ukrainian).
12. Reserve case in Ukraine: Tutorial. 2003. Ed. М.Grodzinsky, M.Stetsenko. Kyiv: 306 (in Ukrainian).
13. Rodіchkіn І., 1981. Designing modern suburban gardens. Kyiv: Budivelnik, 152 (in Russian).
14. Rodichkin I., Bondar J., Verhunov A., 1990. Brief directory of architect. Kyiv: Budivelnik. 332 (in Russian).
15. Rudenko L., Marunyak E., Golubtsov O. etc., 2014. Landscape Planning in Ukraine. Kyiv : Referat, 144 (in Ukrainian).
16. Savelieva E., 2014. Study of waste dumps impact on the adjacent areas. Motrol: kom. Mot. Energ. Roln., OL PAN, Vol. 14, No 2, 138-146.
17. Shovkoplyas T., 1998. Organization and territorial problems of development projects historical and cultural reserves. Scientific and technical journal articles Urban Development. Kyiv: Research and Design Institute of Urban Development. Vol. 46. 125-130 (in Ukrainian).
18. Slobodyanyuk M., Nechayev G., Kislitsin A., 2014. Methodics and algorithms for creation of intermodal logistics park. Motrol: kom. Mot. Energ. Roln., OL PAN, Vol. 14, No 1, 248-265.
19. Stauskas V., 1977. Town-planning organization areas and recreation centers. St. Petersburg: Stroyizdat. 161 (in Russian).
20. Sycheva A., 2007. Landscape architecture: tutorial for High Schools. Minsk: Oniks, 87 (in Russian).
Дана методика визначає ступінь придатності ландшафтів для рекреаційного використання і природоохоронних заходів, що в свою чергу є одним з основних факторів, що впливають на розташування об’єктів природно-заповідного фонду та їх структуру. На основі даної оцінки, визначається сучасний стан ландшафтів (ступінь дигресії, різноманітність рослинного покриву, гідрогеологічні умови, геологічні структури тощо) та поточна функція (рекреаційна, житлова, господарська тощо). У підсумку, ланд-шафтний аналіз повинен привести до вироблення рекомендацій для встановлення меж різних функціональних зон в національних парках, які диференціюються за ступенем заповідності.
Данная методика определяет степень пригодности ландшафтов для рекреационного использования и природоохранных мероприятий, что в свою очередь является одним из основных факторов, влияющих на расположение объектов природно-заповедного фонда и их структуру. На основе данной оценки, определяется современное состояние ландшафтов (степень дигрессии, разнообразие растительного покрова, гидрогеологические условия, геологические структуры и т.д.) и текущая функция (рекреационная, жилая, хозяйственная и т.д.). В итоге, ландшафтний анализ должен привести к выработке рекомендаций для установления границ различных функциональных зон в национальных парках, которые дифференцируются по степени заповедности.